Since Satyricon first melded the worlds of neoclassical and folk music with black metal on their The Forest Is My Throne demo, they have been inextricably linked, leading to a rich history which includes the likes of Ulver, Empyrium, Agalloch, and more. With the scales tipped more towards the metal end of the "folk and metal" fusion in the aforementioned examples, there have been few who have emerged from the other side completely transformed and tipping the scales into an entirely new realm, examples of this being progressive folk rock duo Tenhi, whose lineage lies in gothic and doom metal, and Canada's Musk Ox, whose world melds the worlds of extreme metal antics with progressive rock scope and chamber music execution.

Following up 2014's ambitious Woodfall, which saw this once fledgling neofolk project led by guitarist Nathanael Larochette develop into a trio, now featuring the likes of cellist Raphael Weinroth-Browne (also of Leprous and a stellar solo career) and violinist Evan Runge (also of The Night Watch), Musk Ox's impending Inheritance shows the band completely transformed from the metallic folkisms which defined their earlier works, now concentrating on the complexities of modern chamber music and the delicate touch of practiced classical guitar. Featuring long-form compositions and fragile instrumental interplay, the densely composed Inheritance plays out more like a progressive rock album than a folk album. Citing influences from a wide array of artists from those already mentioned earlier to the likes of Meshuggah and Gojira, Musk Ox's many tendrils grasp onto individual elements from their influences and creates a megalith which casts a daunting shadow. Listen to Inheritance in full and read an interview with guitarist Nathanael Larochette and cellist Raphael Weinroth-Browne below.



Musk Ox's first release is now approaching its 14 year anniversary. Looking back, what first inspired you to make chamber-style folk music, and do you still feel that same inspiration today?

Nathanael Larochette: Wow, it’s hard to believe it’s been that long! The first seeds of inspiration to make this kind of music date back to the early 2000s when I first discovered European metal bands like Blind Guardian, Rhapsody, Opeth, and In Flames through a radio show called “Invictus” at Dalhousie University’s campus station CKDU. As I became a massive fan of metal I grew increasingly interested in the short acoustic riffs and interludes that would appear sporadically or, in the case of Opeth and Agalloch, quite frequently. When I received my first acoustic guitar in 2004 I became devoted to fingerpicking and began learning my favourite acoustic parts from metal albums. The next big step was discovering incredible dark folk records like Tenhi’s Kauan, Ulver’s Kveldssanger and Empyrium’s Where at Night the Wood Grouse Plays, as I had always wanted full albums of metal style acoustic riffs (without the metal). The immediacy and atmosphere of this music was also inspiring because it wasn’t too challenging for me to learn as a beginner guitarist. Eventually I became a massive post-rock fan when I discovered bands like Mogwai, Godspeed! You Black Emperor, Mono and Explosions in the Sky. It was then that I first attempted to blend dark folk music with a post-rock sense of scope, which laid the foundation for the first Musk Ox album. I also set out to give this record a uniquely Canadian sense of space, much like the folk bands I described were channeling their particular surroundings. Over the years my inspiration within Musk Ox has expanded beyond purely idyllic representations of nature to explorations of the human condition and its relation to the physical world. Whereas the debut was an expression of isolation through nature, Woodfall explored the evolving relationship between humanity and the environment. Inheritance continues this evolution by turning its gaze inward at the unique ecosystem that is the human experience. Although I’m constantly exploring and absorbing new influences, the deepest source of inspiration for me has always been to create the missing record in my collection by expressing the spirit of the music I love in new and creative ways.

Raphael Weinroth-Browne: Before joining Musk Ox in 2009, I was largely unaware of the neofolk genre. I was 17 at the time and was studying classical cello while primarily listening to and writing metal music. Joining the group was a complete curveball in my musical life since up until that point I had mostly envisioned myself playing heavy music and had never worked in any context like this before. Performing the early Musk Ox material (tracks from the first album and the demos) gave me the opportunity to explore my own cellistic voice since these pieces were quite spacious and open to variation and improvisation, but also needed to be played expressively and with sincere emotion in order to be effective; I felt that the sound we were producing as a group didn’t have the refinement of classical or the earthiness of instrumental folk but landed somewhere in between the two, while also being informed by the atmosphere of metal. When we composed Woodfall, I remember it being an exciting time because we were creating something far more complex and intricate than the earlier material with much more counterpoint and rhythmic interplay. Nathanael and I were both listening a lot to bands like Scale The Summit and Animals As Leaders and I think that those influences definitely made their way into the music. As a result, I see Woodfall more as a prog album played on acoustic instruments with folk-oriented moments rather than the other way around. With Inheritance, we explored a similar style to Woodfall but with the aim of creating a more concise and streamlined album. I feel that this record is the best representation of the sound we began developing as a trio over a decade ago. In retrospect, I think that while we’ve taken a somewhat unorthodox path musically, it has actually benefited us in the long run since there isn’t another band in our scene that really sounds like us. What inspires me the most is to cover uncharted territory with future compositions and to write music that differs from our past output, while maintaining the same configuration of instruments and sonic elements, and to hopefully take the chamber folk sound in new and unusual directions.

How would you describe Musk Ox in its current musical form when compared to its roots?

NL: Musk Ox began as a solo project and although I didn’t choose the name until the 2007 debut album (officially released in 2009), some of that material dated back to 2006. In the early days I was quite new as a guitarist so the material was mostly short, atmospheric loop based songs. The first three demos represent this style and are all relaxed, nature-centric, atmospheric folk instrumentals heavily inspired by Empyrium, early-Ulver, Tenhi as well as October Falls. By the time I began putting material together for the debut I was approaching composition with an interest in longer, more epic song structures which was directly inspired by my fascination with post-rock. Musk Ox has now evolved beyond a solo project into a collaborative band consisting of myself on classical guitar, Raphael on cello, and violinist Evan Runge who joined in 2011. When compared to the early days, Musk Ox music has evolved to become much more dynamic and intricate while remaining rooted in the melodic and atmospheric framework established in the beginning.

RWB: Musk Ox’s music has evolved over time in very much the same manner as an organic being, beginning in a simple, innocent form, transforming and experiencing growing pains, and then coming to a place of greater maturity and balance. The early material (demos through debut LP) features a stark, minimal atmosphere with a focus on melodies and longer sequences exploring a single idea. The pieces from this era evoke the purity of nature, perhaps even in the absence of humanity. The Woodfall material marked a significant change, containing a much greater dynamic range and introducing moments of aggression and intensity for the first time in the catalogue. All of the instruments are far more active here; these pieces are characterized by their intricacy and complex rhythmic designs, often based around odd meters. With Inheritance, we tried to bridge the gap between the first two albums; the opening track "Premonition" builds slowly and is largely composed around a single idea. In some ways, "Memoriam" is a descendant of "Windswept" (from Woodfall) but has a gentler, more relaxed feel that recalls moments of the debut. At the same time, the new record also contains some of our heaviest and most epic material. I feel that we’ve explored the extremes of minimalism and complexity in our compositions and have given them a place to coexist on Inheritance.

Do you feel Musk Ox progressed due to your advancement as musicians? Or did your musical skill advance due to the ideas you wanted to execute?

NL: Although the line between the two can be difficult to define, I do believe it’s there. As you become more proficient with your instrument it’s only natural that it impacts the music you create. This was the case when I started composing with Raph and our combined skills began pushing the project's progression. However, there is a big difference between working on individual songs at home versus playing an entire album in front of an audience, which we learnt quickly with our last album Woodfall. While the advancement in our abilities definitely elevated our music to new levels, the demands of learning Woodfall well enough to perform it front-to-back, sometimes without any breaks, was a huge challenge to us as individual musicians and as a band. This is the best description I can think of, as I believe your growth as a musician inevitably pushes the compositions while learning the material well enough to perform it advances your musical abilities. It’s one thing to create new, exciting music but it’s another thing to “execute” it, as you so accurately worded in your question. We were a lot younger and felt like we had more to prove with Woodfall but with Inheritance we’ve been able to rely on our maturity to decide when to push forward and when to hold back. We feel that Musk Ox has once again progressed with Inheritance and we look forward to the musical growth that awaits once we have to rehearse these songs and play them live.

RWB: That’s an interesting question. I think it was a combination of both. Speaking from my own perspective, when we wrote Woodfall I was doing my undergraduate degree in cello and spending most of my time practicing and working on my chops. Until that point, we had largely been playing material from the first album, which was relatively simple and sparse by comparison. I definitely had a burning desire at that time to play something more challenging and busy.

I’ve traditionally composed material for Musk Ox at the piano so that I could play the cello and violin parts at the same time and match them to the harmony of the guitar part. This approach provides a better overview of how the music sounds as a whole. While writing on piano is very common and logical, it can also present certain challenges; some things that are very easy to play on a keyboard can actually be very difficult to execute on violin or cello -- specifically fast intervallic jumps or certain kinds of double stop chords. These types of challenges definitely pushed us as musicians since they require more preparation and rehearsal. As a group, we also have a tendency to compose rather long pieces which demand a lot of endurance and focus. I think we initially underestimated the difficulty level of Woodfall (I know I certainly did) but then realized that to perform it well we needed to pay extra attention to detail. We carried this attitude into the process of making Inheritance and consequently spent much more time rehearsing together prior to recording the material.

How has Musk Ox altered or defined your views of and on music?

RWB: When I first joined the band in 2009 I was really at the very beginning of my "professional career" and was certainly coming from a metal background in my musical disposition and approach to composing. My whole concept of performing was very much centred around the idea of loud shows in large venues with both imposing sounds and stage presence to match. Our early shows were mostly in very intimate settings like cafes or house shows, which exposed me to a very different environment for sharing music as well as a different audience than what I had been preparing myself for. One of the things I learned, particularly in the first couple of years playing in Musk Ox, was how to connect with audiences on an emotional level in a live setting and really speak to them through music and body language on stage, regardless of their tastes, age, gender, or background. While this kind of communication is of course an intuitive process, it is something that I’ve kept with me throughout the years and I believe it started with my first shows in Musk Ox and has evolved in other contexts I’ve played in. I think these experiences have led me to see the true universality of musical expression and how it unites people from different cultures and walks of life.

Our music has long been considered metal-adjacent or somehow aesthetically connected to heavy music, otherwise we wouldn’t be having this interview! When it came time for us to play at metal shows, what really struck me was the power of acoustic sounds in a heavy music setting as well as the poignancy of minimalism in what is a largely maximalist genre. The metal community is very invested in the music they enjoy, more so than most audiences, and I think that level of commitment is intrinsically linked to the emotional intensity inherent in the genre. One of the biggest realizations I had was understanding that acoustic music like ours could still conjure the same feeling of awe and perhaps even grandeur as a full metal band in a live context - the medium was different but the emotional impact was the same.

NL:Since the very beginning Musk Ox has been a wholly unexpected journey that continues to grow and evolve at its own pace in surprising and unexpected ways. Much like Raph, heavy music has been a driving force of inspiration for me since I was a teenager so I think I also assumed I would head down that path in a more traditional sense. Like Raph, Musk Ox also helped me realize that musical heaviness is not strictly dependent on sheer volume. Since the beginning of the project I’ve also been consistently intrigued by how many layers of interpretation exist within these pieces. When I released the debut it was fascinating to me that there were metal publications and fans appreciating the songs while at the same time I was also performing this music at the nursing home and hospice near my house. I never considered that music could resonate with senior citizens and black metal fans alike so this definitely impacted my view on music and its ability to reach disparate audiences. To echo Raph, I’d also like to mention how Musk Ox taught me how powerful quiet music can be in a live setting. Since you can’t simply launch a wall of sound at the audience and expect them to deal with it, performing acoustic music live requires the audience to participate in the act of creating a collective musical experience. With quiet music, the sound can be disrupted at any moment so the audience’s deep concentration on what’s happening can help build a very captivating atmosphere. The intensity of a room full of people focused intently on one sparse guitar or string note is something that Musk Ox has taught me to appreciate and cherish over the years. Musk Ox music also secured my passion for the nylon string classical guitar and the endless possibilities that exist within the realm of fingerpicking as I’m still discovering new patterns and paths on the instrument after 16 years. Although I can attribute these lessons to Musk Ox, the seeds of this learning were most certainly planted by the artists who influenced me such as Opeth, Agalloch, Ulver, Empyrium and Tenhi.

I feel as if citing those artists at the end of your answer, Nathanael, is from a now bygone era, when people would still fight in forums and on over whether Agalloch or Opeth was the best band in the world. What is communicating these influences and crafting your own ideas in that sphere like now compared to the heyday we experienced in the mid to late 2000s?

NL: For me the 2000s was a special time for music because that was precisely when I discovered metal. Back then I would listen obsessively to the few CDs I owned because I wanted to absorb every detail of every corner of every song. This was also a special time as downloading was just beginning, which was incredible for a burgeoning metalhead. As I mentioned earlier, campus radio was a huge influence for me so I would listen to the few metal shows they aired and then spend an entire evening downloading one obscure metal song. Back then you could also ask a computer savvy friend to search for specific tracks and burn them onto a CD if you were lucky. I think this was also an important era for metal because there was still a lot of room for innovation, so when I discovered Opeth and Agalloch it was really music I had never heard before. I remember burning a copy of Opeth’s Still Life and listening to it repeatedly, even though I wasn’t sure if I liked it. I think in those days we spent more time with the music we had because we didn’t have anything else. Streaming is great for sampling and exploring but I find it less conducive to focused, attentive listening. I think that’s the best way to compare those days with our current era. As there were fewer distractions and less music available back then, I feel we had more time and patience to develop deep relationships with the artists we enjoyed. This is why I still love the experience of sitting with my discman and listening to a full album on headphones. There is a tangible sense of listening intimacy I experience in these moments as I can’t get distracted and check my phone or easily jump to the next album like when I’m streaming. It’s also nice knowing that, even if only for an hour, no media corporations are monitoring my listening habits. With regards to composing music in the mid to late 2000s, the lack of distractions definitely provided more space to focus on what I was doing while the lack of social media presented fewer opportunities to negatively compare myself with others. I think both eras have their strengths and weaknesses, I’m just grateful I’ve been able to experience both.

RWB: The 2000s were an interesting period since they marked the last decade before the landscape of the music industry changed forever due to the increasing prevalence of social media. In its infancy, YouTube, for example, was much more geared towards actually listening to music than it is today, and I remember discovering many great records there in the late 00s. In hindsight, I certainly believe that it was a kind of golden age for heavy music; bands like Opeth and Porcupine Tree released genre-defining records such as Ghost Reveries and Fear of a Blank Planet that are still regarded as some of their best work fifteen years later. Other landmark releases from that period that come to mind include Gojira’s From Mars To Sirius, Meshuggah’s obZen, Katatonia’s Night Is The New Day, and Nevermore’s This Godless Endeavor. There was a window of a few years in the '00s where the internet was still a "free place" and hadn’t yet been privatized by a handful of corporate behemoths, and streaming hadn’t yet arrived on the scene. I think music itself was valued more during this time because there were fewer distractions from smartphones, social media, and advertisements on streaming platforms.

If I could identify one major difference between the 2000s and today, it would be the way the Internet has reshaped our consciousness and perceptions around making and consuming music. What I remember from composing in my late teens-early twenties was a kind of mental quiet and deep immersion in the music I was working on, whereas now it is very difficult to separate the act of creation from the thought of how the music should be formatted to the platforms where it will eventually be shared and what strategy would work best to reach the largest number of people possible when disseminating it. I would liken this change in the creative process to the evolution of communication; in the days before telephones, we had to write letters. This meant that we might put a great deal of care into the wording and handwriting of a letter and also wait weeks to hear from the recipient. Now, we can text and send DMs, so we don’t necessarily need to articulate our thoughts as carefully, because they are part of a fast paced conversation that is happening in real-time and we expect an instant response. Being a (relevant) musician today requires an ongoing, evolving dialogue with one’s audience as opposed to an investment of years on one piece of work and then several more years on the next one. It’s almost as though one’s career is actually one long livestream spread across months and years. I think this paradigm shift has removed some of the formality from the process of sharing one’s art (in much the same way as the aforementioned example of writing letters vs. texting) and has placed a greater emphasis on honesty and rawness, to the point of opening up the creative process to one’s audience in the moment. Formats have always influenced the way art is created, but now I think musicians are under more pressure than ever because in the current climate, it is no longer sustainable to be a small artist - one has to have a certain degree of success just to stay in the game. Although I have mixed feelings about the turn the music industry has taken, not to mention some nostalgia for the 2000s, I’ve embraced what it’s become.

How do you feel Inheritance shows Musk Ox's growth in the years following the already very stylistically developed Woodfall?

NL:I think the growth with Inheritance is most clearly demonstrated in the refinement of the compositions and the quality of the production. As much as we’re proud of Woodfall and thrilled/surprised at how well it was received, once we started discussing new material we knew the next record needed to revisit the framework established by Woodfall. With Woodfall we really stuffed each song and did very little editing whereas with Inheritance we spent much more time rehearsing and arranging together before entering the studio. Production wise, Woodfall was heavily focused on keeping each instrument very clear while with Inheritance I feel we created a much richer and more dynamic musical world. When I began envisioning the structure of Inheritance I was also determined that the individual songs have their own unique character, vibe and pacing while still complimenting the entire album experience. This was greatly influenced by early Yes records like Close to the Edge and Relayer where you get one epic, one groovy track and one ballad. It’s also worth mentioning that since Woodfall all members of Musk Ox have released numerous albums with other projects such as The Night Watch, Kamancello, The Visit, and Leprous, as well as individual solo releases. Inheritance definitely benefited from the studio experience we’ve gathered between albums.

RWB: In retrospect, I see Woodfall as a very ambitious album where we pushed ourselves to write and perform very long and intricate pieces, but I feel that it reflects a "young" mentality in its lack of ebb and flow and dense passages that last for minutes at a time. We were aspiring to create something complex when we wrote it, and once we had got that out of our system, our goal with Inheritance was to establish and preserve a distinct atmosphere for each individual piece. Where Woodfall felt hurried and frantic, on Inheritance, groove and feel took priority over playing at fast tempos. These changes reflect more of a change in attitude than raw technical ability, but I think they led to an album that is a much more satisfying listen than its predecessor.

In addition, we learned a great deal from past mistakes we made during the recording process. When we recorded Woodfall, we didn’t fully understand and factor in the difficulty of the material and the amount of time we would need to record it properly, not to mention the precision required to capture the best sounds and performances. The recording was broken up and done very sporadically which made the process less focused. We also didn’t have a clear discussion in advance about how to mix the album and I think it shows in the final recording where some songs sound better than others but generally it doesn’t feel like we’re all playing together in the same space. For Inheritance, we budgeted an appropriate number of days to record each instrument over a much shorter period and then spent a lot of time mixing very carefully. As a result, the overall sound of the album feels very consistent throughout.

You've released tablature and sheet music for Woodfall -- what was that process like and what led you to releasing this documentation? Can we expect something similar for Inheritance?

NL: Tabbing has been a big part of my learning and composition process for years so I knew I wanted to release a guitar book for Woodfall. The idea appeared before the album came out which was around the same time I discovered the publishing company Sheet Happens run by Luke Hoskin and Tim Millar of Protest The Hero. It can be difficult to find accurate tabs online, especially with more underground forms of music, so I loved the fact that they were working directly with artists to release accurate transcriptions of metal records. I decided to email them completely out of the blue without expecting a response but a week later Luke got back to me saying he enjoyed the material. We then spent the next year or so putting the Woodfall book together. The response has been amazing so I definitely plan to release a tab book for Inheritance and future albums.



RWB: There has been some interest in a full score for Woodfall. Publishing sheet music for my own compositions has never felt important to me (which is quite ironic after spending so many years studying classical music) but I think it would be a nice thing to do for both Woodfall and Inheritance. I’m sure some folks will come out of the woodwork and play these pieces better than we do!

What do you feel Musk Ox's message or primary conceit is? How do you feel it's adapted or changed over the years?

NL: The early demos and debut full-length were purely expressions of a deep and partly naïve reverence for nature through what to me was a uniquely Canadian sense of space. During those days I took some epic Greyhound adventures throughout Canada and was deeply inspired by the sheer vastness of the landscapes I witnessed from the bus window (if I was lucky to get that seat). This was before the smartphone/social media era so there were far fewer distractions and more opportunities to become immersed in your own surroundings. With Woodfall, the influence from the natural world was still there but that album to me reflected the meeting of humanity and nature through cycles of death and rebirth. With Inheritance, the focus has shifted to human nature and the complexities of our individual and communal eco-systems. Being an instrumental project offers us the luxury of not needing lyrics to articulate our message but we are still very intentional with our layouts, album and song titles so hints and signposts are available to those curious. In the end, I think Musk Ox music is, first and foremost, introspective by nature and therefore designed to offer a compelling soundtrack for the listener’s own personal journeys both inward and outward.

RWB: All of our music features a kind of dialogue with nature, but it comes from a Canadian standpoint rather than a European one, for instance, which I think sets us apart sonically and aesthetically. We also occupy a unique space somewhere in between new classical music and neofolk, but we don’t really belong to either sphere. We are more focused on intricacy and detail than a lot of neofolk artists, but are generally not considered truly classical because of the repeating motives and structures (read: riffs) we use which are more indicative of a "band" than a chamber group. Over the years this has become clear to us, but we have chosen to embrace our identity and allow it to guide us instead of following a larger musical movement or trend.

You both have experience in the metal world -- why do you feel metal and this type of chamber folk are inextricably connected?

NL: I always use the intro to Metallica’s "Battery" as the perfect thread between chamber folk and metal because it feels so heavy even before it actually gets heavy. Having been a metal fan for over 20 years, the spirit of that music is deeply ingrained into my creative spirit and is intentionally woven into the fabric of not only Musk Ox but every musical project I participate in regardless of genre. The melodic, rhythmic and aesthetic approach of our band is directly inspired by metal which is easy to notice if you listen to heavy music. That being said, as a long-time metal fan what really inspires me are the unexplored regions that exist at the very edge of heavy music. This realm is endlessly inspiring because there are many exciting discoveries to be made there. Metal adjacent acoustic and classical music is not uncommon at this point but hopefully we’re finding new and creative ways to communicate and express this energy.

RWB: I’ve always understood metal as an attitude towards musical expression rather than a set of rules that clearly define instrumentation and sound. There’s a certain austerity and gravity that is very much at the core of metal and that same energy is conveyed through dark folk music. I think that metal and acoustic genres like chamber folk are linked because they share a comparable atmosphere and as a result, a very similar aesthetic. Distorted and acoustic sounds are almost meant to complement each other, like the sweet and savoury elements of a good meal. As Nathanael mentioned with the "Battery" example, there is also a strong precedent for mellower sounds in heavy music; there are many instances of them coexisting in early metal songs. Incidentally, the gradual build up during the first half of "Premonition" reminded me of an acoustic Metallica intro when we were writing it and the heavy chugs on the cello around the halfway point were a kind of reference to archetypal metal songs that feature a big, majestic sound when the melodic intro turns heavy right before cutting to a fast riff played on single panned-off guitar. The main difference here is that we took an entire track to explore a sombre, forlorn atmosphere on "Premonition" and then fully adopted the language of metal on the following track "Hindsight," particularly during the outro.

Where do you see Musk Ox going next?

NL: Although this was never the plan, Inheritance has revealed itself as the completion of a thematic trilogy that began with the debut. To be honest, I would love to do something more relaxed and ambient after having finished these last two technically demanding and intense records. Maybe now that we’ve revisited and refined the Woodfall approach we’ll build upon the more expansive and meditative style of the debut? Inheritance and Woodfall were such dense statements that I feel like the slate is clean for us to take things in a new direction. These two albums were also extremely challenging to engineer and mix so it would be great to record something live off the floor or simply attempt something new in the studio. The opening track on Inheritance is the first song we’ve ever composed as a trio so I definitely see us doing more group writing in the future. Woodfall and Inheritance were created over so many years that it would also be great to compose and record the next album in a more defined span of time so the ideas remain fresh and immediate. We are also very keen to become a more active live band so it would be great to do some tours once the world opens back up. This project has been an unexpected and surprising adventure since the very beginning so I’m sure the next step will reveal itself in time.

RWB: Inevitably, every new piece of art is a reaction in some way to its immediate predecessor, and I think we’ve agreed that we want to approach writing in a more intuitive, spontaneous, and collaborative way going forward and leave more to chance as opposed to calculating another record note for note. Part of the reasoning for this is to create pieces that have more space and breathing room so that they translate better live and are less challenging to mix. I also think that coming up with something directly on our instruments in real time will allow for a more natural feel and easy flow in the music, although I don’t think that will necessarily result in more ambient or relaxed pieces, but rather something a little less forced. We are definitely hoping to perform more regularly live. I look forward to touring and playing setlists that combine material from our three albums. I think that performing together more often will be a good warm up for whatever we create next; I’m excited to write music together again from a completely blank slate and to see where the creative process leads.


Inheritance releases July 9th via the band's Bandcamp.


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